Articles in this section:

On this page, there is a selection of articles from the Journal of the Ibn 'Arabi Society. Although these do not represent an analytical treatment of Ibn 'Arabi's teachings, they do reflect the breadth of subjects in his writing. Authors include:

Claude Addas
Pablo Beneito
Jane Carroll
Aaron Cass
William Chittick
Michel Chodkiewicz
Jane Clark
Gerald Elmore
Denis Gril
Souad Hakim
James Morris
Bulent Rauf
Frithiof Rundgren
Reza Shah-Kazemi
Cecilia Twinch
Osman Yahya
Peter Young
Mohamed Haj Yousef

Themes in Ibn 'Arabi's writing

In what I have written, I have never had a set purpose, as other writers. Flashes of divine inspiration used to come upon me and almost overwhelm me, so that I could only put them from my mind by committing to paper what they revealed to me. If my works evince any form of composition, that form was unintentional. Some works I wrote at the command of God, sent to me in sleep or through a mystical revelation...

Ibn 'Arabi's writings are broadly concerned with divine reality, and the human being's experience of it. In the quotation above, he stresses that what he wrote was not a personal matter. It can be said that the ideas he communicates do not allow themselves to be reduced to a system, and in this sense there is no one, definitive, way to pick out the themes that run through his works.

One approach has been seen since the time of Ibn 'Arabi's great student, Sadruddin al-Qunawi, who responded to requests from people for help understanding Ibn 'Arabi's Fusûs al-Hikam. A superlative example of this is the introduction to the 18th century Ottoman translation of the Fusûs, rendered into English by Bulent Rauf. This introduction has twelve sections, called "origins" (usûl). For example, Origin three "explains the Divine Names and Qualities", Origin four the a'yân-i-thâbita, Origin ten "is an explanation of the fact that the station of Love is higher than all other stations".

In the 20th century William Chittick has published two large studies, based on selections from the Futûhât al-Makkiya, a work which was often quoted by traditional scholars, but did not attract commentaries. These studies are a survey of certain areas or aspects of the Futûhât, and an attempt to convey themes running through the work in Ibn 'Arabi's own words. In these books he organized the extracts under six headings: the names of God, existence and non-existence, transcendence and immanence, modes of knowing, human perfection, and the barzakh, the "in-between".

Perhaps the most important thing to say is that though there are clear, recognizable, themes running through Ibn 'Arabi's writings, there is no end to the variety in them, especially if one considers them in depth. On this site, we are not able yet to organize the articles in thematic groups, but those which we offer on this page give a wonderful indication of the breadth of Ibn 'Arabi's teachings.

Articles in this section

Ibn al-ʿArabī: the Treasury of Absolute Mercy Mohamed Haj Yousef

Ibn al-ʿArabī often states that the world was originated from absolute mercy, and to mercy it shall return; any pain or wretchedness is therefore temporal and apparent. We shall discuss in this article the origin of the world and its destiny, and the role of mercy, based on Ibn al-ʿArabī's cosmological model of creation.

Ibn 'Arabi: towards a universal point of view, Peter Young

The place and value of Ibn 'Arabi, both at this time and for the future. On the unfolding of the simple kernel of his legacy: knowledge of the unity of existence and the possibility of attaining to a universal perspective.

Working together between God's two hands, by Peter Young.

The world has entered a period of rapid climate change, and we are being compelled to look at ourselves and our actions in the light of the intrinsic unity of this global system in which we, mankind, are such major players. this paper is a timely rememberance of the real place of man, where he is neither a disease with regard to the rest of the world, nor is he diseased.

There's No Time Like the Present!, by Alison Yiangou.

"Our existence does not extend in time, but is renewed at each moment, and our present moment is the gift, or present, of existence in the form of our possibility. Thus for both senses of the word 'present' – 'present' as 'now' and 'present' as 'gift' – there is no time like the present: not because the present exists in time, but because time exists in the Present."

Theophanies and Lights in the Thought of Ibn 'Arabi, Osman Yahya

God is the "Hidden Treasure" which longs to express itself and be known. God/Truth is Beauty and the property of beauty is to shine forth. He is Love whose nature is to give of itself. The divine theophanies are essentially the outpouring of His Beauty, His Perfection and His Love which are expressed in the immense theatre of the universe.

Ibn 'Arabi's Fiqh: Three Cases from the Futuhat, Eric Winkel

Is there even any material for a study of Ibn 'Arabi's fiqh (legal discourse/jurisprudence)? Few people realize that Ibn 'Arabi had a fiqh! And yet a translation of just the extended fiqh section of the Futūhāt would run over two thousand pages. Yes there is an Akbarian fiqh: I have chosen here three particular cases he investigates and argues from a fiqh perspective...

Time is not real: Time in Ibn 'Arabi, and from Parmenides (and Heraclitus) to Julian Barbour

The physicist Fotini Markopoulou says, 'There are two kinds of people in quantum gravity. Those who think that timelessness is the most beautiful and deepest insight in general relativity, if not modern science, and those who simply cannot comprehend what timelessness can mean and see evidence for time in everything in nature.' Perhaps the fullest description of timelessness and contemporary physics is found in Julian Barbour's work e.g. his 1999 book The End of Time. Eric Winkel draws on some passages from Ibn 'Arabi's Futūhāt in which he describes a week, a month and a year, all of these periods having no real being – they are only relations, one celestial body in comparison or relation to another. "If we carry this description of time being relational to its conclusion that there is no ontological reality to time, we enter a battle that has raged from the ancients until today."

Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi: The Beauty of Oneness..., Cecilia Twinch

Khalwah and Jalwah, 'retreat' and 'society' and Dhikr, remembrance, invocation of God. The return to the quiet centre where in the emptiness of the heart the Beauty of Oneness may be witnessed.

The Circle of Inclusion, Cecilia Twinch

The Muhammadian vision provided by Ibn 'Arabī gives an overview which is not tied to any particular belief, or property, or attribute. Essentially the self is unbounded. If we impose our own limitations and constraints on it, we are prevented from fully receiving each new revelation.

Ibn 'Arabī on Proximity and Distance – Chapters 260 and 261 of the Futūhāt Mohammed Rustom

This is a reading of Ibn 'Arabī's teachings on the important Sufi concepts of qurb (proximity) and bu'd (distance), as laid out in chapters 260 and 261 of the al-Futūhāt al-makkiyya. In these relatively brief chapters Ibn 'Arabī engages his predecessors' meditations upon these concepts, while offering his own unique interpretations of their meaning and significance. The hadīth al-nawāfil plays a crucial role in Ibn 'Arabī's teachings here, as do a number of key Qur'ānic passages.

On the Dignity of Man, Frithiof Rundgren

Some Aspects of the Unity of Being in Ibn 'Arabi. With reference to Platonic thought. From the viewpoint of the history of ideas, this is a survey of old, mainly Greek elements occurring in the first Chapter of the Fusûs. The elements are not only to be found also elsewhere in the writings of the great sheikh but also in those of many of his forerunners. However, the basic elements Greek or Arabic, are one thing, their combination into constituents of a system is another. It is in the way he combines the elements into constituents of a system that we find the truly impressive originality of Ibn 'Arabi.

Concerning the Universality of Ibn 'Arabi, Bulent Rauf

For Ibn 'Arabi and many that think like him, Tawhid or Union is not a matter of knowing what it means, but the act of progression towards the fulfilment of that action and knowledge, to feel an irresistible desire to reach, consciously, that state of being where one is in Union or in Tawhid

Union and Ibn 'Arabi, Bulent Rauf

The basis of the all-important "Universality" of Ibn 'Arabi: The Oneness of the self-existing One-and-Only Unique Essence and the One-and-Only Infinite Existence.

Wisdom and Wisdoms, Bulent Rauf

"It is necessary, therefore, to define the limits of Hikma (Wisdom) to the action of pronouncement, otherwise known as ‘invitation’ to the pronouncement – (You are only sent to invite: Qur’an) – because Wisdom does not coerce in any way except by exposition of Truth and its modal applicability to the time-space defined state... There is only a de-facto statement manifesting in exposition as Wisdom – given, where ‘given’ only refers to the ability in the subject receiving the gift to perceive that which is proffered, and more intensely, to recognise it as what it is meant to be, with all the appertaining intrinsic and extrinsic consequential activity of complete and absolute vision and equally, complete inaction. (The Wise man does not act: Lao Tsu). Yet we should note that the action of the name does not make the person performing the action, the actor. It is rather the meaning of the action which identifies with the man who is performing the action. The Wise is such a name and Wisdom, as we have seen, is the identity of the man through whom Wisdom is promulgated. All the Words who are Wisdoms defile through our conceptual time, sometimes in accordance with our temporal procedure and sometimes metachronically, till a consequence of complete exposition of the non-coercive judgement in accordance with Essential knowledge is reached. "

Women of Light in Sufism, Sachiko Murata

According to the Qur'an, "God is the light of the heavens and the earth." In this article Sachiko Murata suggests why femininity is essentially luminous, why, in other words, it reflects directly the divine light that fills the universe. She talks about what can be called "the light of woman" and how women – and men as women become "women of light." She begins by quoting one of the most famous Sufis of history, Râbi'a. Her sayings are often quoted by the Sufis, and she is respected as one of the greatest spiritual teachers of the early tradition. One of the shortest of the many sayings that have come down from her is this: "Everything has a fruit, and the fruit of recognition is coming forward to God. "

Listening for God: Prayer and the Heart in the Futûhât, by James Morris.

What is it about the "heart" - or rather, how is it? - that can so miraculously transform perception into contemplation, everyday experience into theophany, the words and movements of ritual into the ineffable reality of prayer? As the Qur'an repeatedly insists, each of us surely has "had a heart" - but what is it that so rarely and unforgettably makes that heart "shahîd," actively and consciously contemplating the Truly Real, so that our transient awareness is transformed into true prayer and remembrance of God?

Divine Calling, Human Response – Scripture and Realization in the Meccan Illuminations by James Morris.

This article includes translation from Chapters 519 and 520 of the Futûhât, from the long concluding sixth section which is devoted to 'the spiritual mottoes (hijjīrāt) of the Muhammadan Poles and their spiritual stations.' These two chapters are concerned with calling and response between God and his servants, essential relationship, as encapsulated in the Quranic verse, "And whenever My servants ask you about Me, surely I am Near: I respond to the call of the one who is calling, whenever he calls upon Me. So may they respond fully to Me and may they have faith in Me, that they might be guided rightly!" (Quran 2:186).

The second part of the article has as an Appendix a list of verses in the Qur'an and hadith referring to the Arabic root for answering, responding or replying to a request (j-w-b, in both the IVth and Xth verb forms). The corresponding notions of calling, requesting, pleading, praying for, are expressed in the wider family of Quranic expressions (including the Arabic roots s-ʾ-l, d-ʿ-w, n-d-w, etc.)

Ibn 'Arabi's 'Short Course' on Love James Morris

Selections from Chapter 73 of the Futūhāt (the concluding chapter in the opening Fasl al-Maʿārif of that work) – comprising Ibn ʿArabi’s brief response to four successive items in Tirmidhi’s famous ‘mystical questionnaire’ related to the theme of divine Love – provide a concise introduction to virtually all of the ideas and perspectives concerning love that are developed at much greater length in Chapter 178. Moreover, near the very end of the Futūhāt (in the penultimate Chapter 559, largely devoted to revealing the ‘inner meanings’ of each of the preceding chapters of that monumental work), Ibn ʿArabi returns to this theme in a short, but highly challenging and evocative description of the central role in human and divine existence of Love as the all-encompassing force of cosmic ‘desire’ (hawā). His concluding remarks on love there are expressed in ways that will recall both Plato’s Symposium and Phaedrus, as well as some of the most humanly revealing – and often memorably provocative – stories and teachings about the indispensable motivating and revelatory power of love and desire that are scattered throughout Rumi’s Spiritual Masnavī.

From Allusion to Insight and Right Action (pdf), by James Morris.

Political Dimensions of Ibn 'Arabi's Hermeneutics of Spiritual Realisation. "As a teacher frequently working with non-specialist audiences in different languages and cultures, I am often faced with the dilemmas posed by the fact that most students of the Shaykh today (whatever their language or culture) naturally approach those studies without much informed understanding of those essential contexts - both historical and especially the 'operative' or existential ones - which are in fact needed for an adequate understanding and appreciation of his writings as they were meant to be read and utilised by his original audiences."

Opening the Heart: Ibn 'Arabi on Suffering, Compassion and Atonement by James Morris.

This study carefully follows Ibn ʿArabi's own development of a key theme, sadr, through the Fasl al-Maʿārif (on 'Forms of Spiritual Knowing/Awareness') of the Futūhāt. This long opening section includes includes the first 73 chapters (roughly one-quarter of the entire book). The Arabic word sadr literally means 'chest,' but in almost all contexts more meaningfully translated in English by the word 'heart'.

The Encompassing Heart – Unified vision for a unified world, by Kautsar Azhari Noer.

Concerning the encompassing heart, it is necessary to remember two points. The first is that the heart of the gnostic possesses a unifying function. The heart's ability to encompass, embrace or include can be understood as its ability to unify, unite or integrate because of its unlimited vastness. The second is that love is the power of unifying or combining. The locus of love is the heart. When the heart is filled by and with love, it possesses the power of unifying since love is itself the power of unifying. The encompassing heart that is filled by and with love unifies vision, or makes it unified.

The Symbolism of Letters and Language in the Work of Ibn 'Arabi, Pierre Lory

Ibn 'Arabi's conception of language and the mystical science of the letters that is its corollary are certainly one of the central, and at the same time the most synthetic and abstruse, parts of the Shaykh al-Akbar's work. With a word, God brings into being an indeterminate multitude of creatures and these creatures become “words” in the immense divine discourse that is the universe.

The Realms of Responsibility in Ibn 'Arabi's al-Futuhat al-makkiya, by Alexander Knysh

The Arabic terms that Ibn 'Arabi uses to describe responsibility vary. The closest he comes to our modern understanding of the meaning of responsibility is probably the concept of taklif – a term that denotes the sum total of religious obligations that God has imposed on His servants. Throughout the text of the Futuhat, Ibn 'Arabi often refers to his fellow believers as mukallafun, namely, those burdened with Divine Command... The other semantic cluster pertaining to responsibility is associated, in the Futuhat, with the Arabic roots talaba ("to demand", "to demand back", "to reclaim", etc.) and sa'ala ("to ask", "to demand", "to claim", etc.). According to Ibn 'Arabi, the whole universe is held responsible (tuliba) by God...

Interreligious Dialogue: Ibn 'Arabi and Meister Eckhart by Ghasem Kakaie

Currently, in the great global village, all religions – and especially the Abrahamic religions – are, on the one hand, facing attacks which are not aimed at any particular religions but at the essence of religiosity and spirituality – among which secularism, modernism and postmodernism are neither the last nor the worst attacks. On the other hand, those religions whose stated purpose is to guide and save humanity, need to find solutions for the moral, psychological and spiritual problems and anomalies with which humanity today is faced. Another problem faced by religions is the issue of religious wars fought to the extremes of savagery. If we were to succeed in discovering a single essence for religions – and particularly for Abrahamic religions – a dialogue between these religions based on that single essence could then be employed, both to strengthen the united front of religions against the attacks made in the modern world and as a step towards cooperation in solving the problems of humanity. This could also act as a background against which religious conflicts could be attenuated.

Jesus in the Qur'an: Selfhood and Compassion - An Akbari Perspective by Reza Shah-Kazemi.

Ibn 'Arabi refers to Jesus as "symbol of engendering" (mathalan bi-takwin). It is my intention in this paper to show that, in the metaphysical perspective of Ibn 'Arabi's school, one of the most important principles of which the "Qur'anic" Jesus stands forth as a "symbol", sign, and concrete embodiment, is the following: mercy and compassion are the fruits of the realization of the true Self - or self of the Real, the Nafs al-Haqq, as Ibn 'Arabi calls it.

Nothing But Animals – The Hierarchy of Creatures in the Ringstones of Wisdom, by Pasha M. Khan

One of the concepts that has long filled the imagination of Sufis and academics is the anthropology of Muhy'al-Dīn Ibn al-'Arabī. The quest for the Perfect Human (insān kāmil) has driven many authors, from 'Abd al-Karīm al-Jīlī to Masataka Takeshita, and there is little doubt that this concept occupies a central place in Ibn 'Arabi's texts. But it is surprising that so few readers of Ibn 'Arabi have taken seriously his ideas about non-human animals, especially given that they are so arresting and so explicitly bewildering.

The Dimensions of the Mystical Journey, by Bahram Jassemi

"You should know that man has been on the journey ever since God brought him out of non-being into being" – The Shaykh al-Akbar, Ibn 'Arabi, describes the state of being of the man on the journey in his Risâlat al-Anwâr and points out that it is only possible for man to cease journeying in the fifth abode (mawtin), namely in Paradise or in hell...

"Watered with One Water" – Ibn 'Arabī on the One and the Many, by Angela Jaffrey

Though God is one, the vision that dominates human existence is of a world of graded hierarchies, levels, specific faces, veils, and Names. A cosmos of dualities, oppositions, complementarities, contraries, rivals, counter-forces, and tensions. Tawhīd does not begin with unity, since that needs to be established. Rather, it begins with the recognition of diversity and difference. Water as a symbol holds a powerful clue to explaining Ibn 'Arabī's notions of the one and the many.

O Marvel! A paradigm shift towards integration, Stephen Hirtenstein

"No-one can deny that human activities leave a great deal to be desired. However, that view alone would ignore the essential capacity we have for self-transcendence, for going beyond apparent limitations, for working in harmony with others and not against them, for assuming the dignity of the complete human being which lies in the potential of each and every one of us."

Notes on the more than human saying: "Unless you know yourself you cannot know God", by Dom Sylvester Houédard

These notes look at some pre-Islamic instances of the saying "He who knows himself (or his-self, his soul, his mind) knows his Lord" and at 16 contexts where Ibn 'Arabi introduces the hadith in ways that indicate the importance of its theology for understanding the double paradox of continuous creation and of epectasy (of the perpetual advance or taraqqi of mind to God through God's perpetual advance to us).

The Mystic's Kaʿba – The cubic wisdom of the Heart according to Ibn ʿArabī by Stephen Hirtenstein

There are two distinct complementary and apparently opposed (in intellectual terms) aspects regarding the Way to Truth. On the one hand, it is a journey to the Heart-Kaʿba, a journey that can only be achieved through purification and polishing. As Ibn ʿArabī writes, 'the Real seeks from you your heart and gives to you all that you are. So purify and cleanse it [the heart] through presence (ḥuḍūr), watchfulness (murāqaba) and reverential fear (khashya).' Sometimes he uses the traditional metaphor of the heart as a reflective mirror which needs polishing – the mirror emphasising the ultimate nature of the heart as completely and infinitely receptive to the Divine revelation. At the same time, it is a journey of the heart (safar al-qalb) to the Heart, of the mystic's heart to the reality of Heart. It is a movement, therefore, away from considerations of 'I', 'me', 'my heart' to concentration on God alone, His Heart, away from the usurper to the true Owner, from ignorance to witnessing and Knowledge. It can also be described as a journey from being a limited vessel to becoming what is depicted in the Christian tradition on the walls of the Chora Church in Istanbul as 'the container of the Uncontainable'. For Ibn ʿArabī the 'journey' is really the heart facing towards God in remembrance.

The Brotherhood of Milk - Perspectives of Knowledge in the Adamic Clay by Stephen Hirtenstein

This article begins with a dream in which Ibn 'Arabi saw the Prophet Abraham, and concludes with a translation from Chapter 167 of the Futûhât al-Makkiyya covering the whole section on the seventh heaven.

The Immutable Entities and Time, by Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila

"Ancient thinkers fall, roughly, into two groups. Some are interesting only from an academic point of view, as objects of study for the historian of philosophy. Others, however, remain relevant to modern readers as well. They need to be studied not only as part of the history of human thought but also as contemporary thinkers. Ibn 'Arabī (d.1240) belongs without doubt to this second group. One of his central concepts is 'ayn thābita... there is a striking resemblance between some concepts of modern physics and the immutable entities ['ayân thābita]. For me, this is an interesting example of how similar conclusions may be reached from widely different starting points."

The Paths to God: A Journey through the Spiritual Experience of Ibn 'Arabī and his Writings Souad Hakim

‘The Paths to God’ is a phrase which carries within it a paradox because, firstly, it gives the reader the impression that God (praise be to Him) is far away, absent, or even the expectation that the seeker (sālik) travels the path to arrive at the Holy Threshold. However, according to the scriptures, God (praise be to Him) is close to His servants – He is with them wherever they are... In truth, He is the Seeker in the one who reaches out to Him (praise be to Him), and He hastens towards the one who walks towards Him. This begs the question as to why the Sufi seeks a way to reach God (praise be to Him), all the while being certain that God is with him and close to him...

The Spirit and the Son of the Spirit. A reading of Jesus ('Îsâ) according to Ibn 'Arabî by Souad Hakim.

The paper falls into five parts: firstly, the creation of Jesus and his "person"; secondly, the dialectic relation between spirit and body, under the title: "Jesus a Sign (âya) from God"; thirdly, the knowledge of Jesus and his devotions; fourthly, Jesus as the Seal of Sainthood (walâya); and fifthly, the friends of Jesus, namely: Jesus and John the Baptist (Yahyâ), Jesus and Ibn 'Arabî, and finally Jesus and the Îsâwiyyûn (the people whose sainthood is Jesus-like).

Ibn 'Arabî's Twofold Perception of Woman - Woman as Human Being and Cosmic Principle Souad Hakim

"It is astonishing that a colossal Islamic scholar, Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabî (AH 560-638), who lived more than eight centuries ago, should have declared that woman and man are absolutely equal in terms of human potentiality." It is a vision which deals with gender in terms of the essential qualities of humanity, and so provides a foundation for the reassessment of notions and concepts about women in Islam, or without reference to religion at all.

Unity of Being in Ibn 'Arabî - A Humanist Perspective, Souad Hakim

"For as long as man has been thinking and putting his ideas and visions into writing, a three- dimensional structure of knowledge has been evident. The passing of time has proved that this tripartite knowledge expresses an original and living human need, the need for a healthy and just life. This structure includes individual self-knowledge, knowledge of the surrounding world and knowledge of what is beyond the visible world. In modern societies, these three dimensions have become a human right, which is claimed and safeguarded..."

The Way of Walaya Souad Hakim

Sainthood or "Friendship of God". From readings from the Futûhât, The Way of Conduct and the The Way of Witnessing: Seeing the One in the manifestations of His different states. "It may be noticed, through studying Sufi experiences, that Sufism can be classified according to two aspects. The first is represented by outstanding luminaries like Abu Talib al-Makki, al-Qushairi, al-Tusi, Suhrawardi and finally, in its perfection, by Ghazali. It is a safe course based on conduct, and considers the Sufi experience to be an exercise for the fulfilment of a ladder of ranks that are already known and determined... The second aspect is represented by individuals like Abu Yazid al-Bistami, Shibli, Junayd, Hallaj and finally, in its perfection, by Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi."

Jesus, Mary and the Book, according to Ibn al-'Arabī, Denis Gril

"What place do Jesus and Mary occupy in the Quranic revelation, or more precisely, how does the relationship between these two prophetic figures shed light on the very reality of universal revelation that the Quran calls the Book or the Scripture (al-kitāb)? To what extent does our Shaykh allow us to penetrate the meaning of this relationship? In trying to respond to these questions we will begin by citing a passage from Chapter 5 of the Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya, a commentary on the basmala then on the whole of the Fātiḥa. The rather enigmatic character of the established parallel between the Fātiḥa and the Book on the one hand and between Mary and Jesus on the other, can only encourage us to search for a deeper significance within it. "

The Qur'anic Figure of Pharaoh According to the Interpretation of Ibn 'Arabi Denis Gril

This article is about Ibn ʿArabi’s interpretation of the Qurʾanic information given in numerous statements about the Pharaoh, in particular, ‘the faith of Pharaoh’ (īmān Firʿawn). What Ibn 'Arabi wrote on this matter was often misunderstood or distorted, and attracted violent criticism from his adversaries.

"There is no Word in the World that does not Indicate His Praise", Denis Gril

This paper begins, "Praise represents both the beginning and the end of existence and the principal reason for the existence of the universe. One begins a meal with bismillâh ("In the name of God") and finishes the meal with al-hamdu li-llâh ("Praise be to God"). These two formulas hold, just like the meal, our whole existence." The same paper is available in French "Il n'est de Mot dans l'Univers qui n'Indique Sa Louange".

Ibn al-ʿArabī in Egypt – The speech of things Denis Gril

When the Companions of the Prophet heard the rock glorifying God in the Prophet's hands, it was not the glorification of the rock which was out of the ordinary, but rather the fact that the Companions could hear its glorification. It is not usual for human beings to hear the speech of objects, because hearing and understanding this kind of speech belongs to the conditions of the hereafter, not to the conditions of this world. Indeed, the limbs of a human being have a tongue that cannot be heard except in the hereafter, as is related in the Sūra of Yā Sīn (Q.36:65). A human being may fabricate lies and deny things about God and about himself, but the tongue of things is always truthful, it neither lies nor errs. In this sense, it is closer in degree to its Lord than the speech of most human beings...

Adab and Revelation – One of the Foundations of the Hermeneutics of Ibn 'Arabi, Denis Gril

'The adîb - the one who knows and respects adab – is the wise man (hakîm).' This statement begins Chapter 168 of the Futûhât al-Makkiyyah on the maqam of adab, and this article has extended translations from the Futûhât as well as other sources. "The first thing God gave to His servants as an order is the meeting (jam'). This is nothing other than adab, a word derived from ma'duba, 'banquet', or the act of meeting for a meal (al-ijtimâ' 'ala 'l-ta'âm), just as adab is the meeting together of all good (jimâ' al-khayr kullihi). The Prophet, upon him grace and peace, said: 'God instilled adab in me', i.e. has brought together in me all forms of good – 'and He made it perfect in me', i.e. has made of me the place of all perfection." This article is also available in Swedish.

Commentaries on the Fâtiha and Experience of the Being According to Ibn 'Arabi, Denis Gril

The first chapter of the Qur'an, 'The opener' of the book (Fâtihat al-kitâb), expounds the aspects of unicity and of differentiation of the Being, in the sense that, according to a tradition, it finds itself divided between the Lord and the servant whilst at the same time uniting them. This same tradition calls the Fâtiha 'prayer' (salât). Prayer is therefore union (sila), but also distinguishes, as with any rite of worship, between the worshipper and the worshipped. Ibn 'Arabi devoted a number of commentaries to the Fâtiha, either in the form of independent treatises, or as part of other works such as the Futûhât. Three commentaries representative of the orientations of the Akbarian doctrine have been selected here: the metaphysics of Self and of divine names; cosmogony and its microcosmic accordances; and sanctification through the rites.

Hadith in the work of Ibn ʿArabī : The uninterrupted chain of prophecy Denis Gril

"The role of Ibn ʿArabī, in the domain of hadith as in others, was not to put forward new ideas, but to juxtapose domains which had never previously been considered together, at least not explicitly. He brings together respect for the formal rules of transmission with requirements of seemingly another order, by extolling absolute respect for the literal meaning whilst holding the direct vision of the Prophet as the ideal of perfect transmission, or by underlining the virtue of servanthood which is linked to the very act of transmitting, making the ahl al-ḥadīth, whoever they may be, the true heirs of prophecy."

The Quranic Inspiration of Ibn 'Arabi's Vocabulary of Love – Etymological Links and Doctrinal Development, Maurice Gloton

Ibn 'Arabi, at the beginning of Chapter 178 of the Futuhat al-Makkiyya, makes it clear that the Station of Love has four names: Hubb, germinal, seminal or original love, whose purity penetrates the heart and whose limpidity is not subject to accidental changes. Wadd, affection or the faithful attachment of love, a word to which the Divine Name Wadud is related, the constantly lovable and loving. 'ishq, the spiralling of love or distraught love, extreme love or overwhelming love. Hawa, the sudden inclination of love or unexpected passion of love.

Spiritual Realization (al-tahqiq) through Daily Awakening Eric Geoffroy

This is a meditation on the meaning of al-tahqīqverification or realisation – which is central to the writing of Ibn 'Arabi, and drawing on the writings of Sufis before Ibn 'Arabi, such as Junayd (d.911, the "Leader of the Sufis", sayyid al-tāʾifa), and others after him, such as Shaykh al-ʿAlāwī. Junayd, said "I have achieved al-tahqīq by staying in the presence of God for thirty years under these stairs’, by which he meant the stairs of his house."

The Akbarian Jesus: The Paradigm of a Pilgrim in God, by Jaume Flaquer

That Jesus is a spirit and being ‘the word proceeding from God’ "make him the paradigm of another quality: that of the pilgrim of God, of the spiritual traveller who comes from God and returns to God without ever having left the presence of God. This spiritual journey is the reflection of a cosmic movement of a creation which is constantly leaving God and returning to Him. Jesus is the model of both movements because he realises in himself this cosmic journey by being the manifestation of the Word arising from the divine Breath, and by walking through the world in the constant presence of God." This paper is also available in German Der akbarische Jesus : Das Vorbild eines Reisenden in Gott (pdf file).

A Selection of Texts on the Theme of Praise from some Gnomic Works by Ibn al-'Arabī Gerald Elmore

This important article contains passages on the subject of Praise translated from four works by Ibn 'Arabi, namely from Chapter 558 of the Futūhāt al-makkiyah, from the K. al-'Abādilah, the K. al-Shawāhid and the K. Tāj al-tarājim.

The Alchemical Marriage of Intellect and Soul, Gerald Elmore

Gerald Elmore is author of Islamic Sainthood in the Fullness of Time – Ibn 'Arabi's book "The Fabulous Gryphon", Brill 1999.

Four Texts of Ibn al-'Arabi on the Creative Self-Manifestation of the Divine Names (pdf), by Gerald Elmore.

In the 'Anqâ mughrib Ibn 'Arabi devoted a chapter to "An Eternal Conference on an Everlasting Figure". In this he explained the cause of the world's emergence in an allegory, through the description of a debate between the Divine Names. He referred to and summarised this passage in a another early work (Inshâ al-Dawâ'ir - Description of the Encompassing Circles), and subsequently developed the theme in two chapters of the Futûhât. One of these passages provoked a controversy in the Egyptian National Assembly in 1980, but there is obviously much more to this imagery than its capacity to shock. The article is in a large Acrobat file (pdf - 500 k) which will take some time to download.

The Time of Science and the Sufi Science of Time, by Caner K. Dagli

"Physics used to teach us that space is a kind of absolute container, separate from the flow of time. In this classical or Newtonian conception, objects traveled through or remained stationary in space, which itself was not subject to change or to internal variations... But what does the reality of time mean for the spiritual journey of the soul?"

Practical Sufism – An Akbarian Foundation for a Liberal Theology of Difference, Vincent Cornell

Although it would be a mistake to consider all Sufis "liberal" or "open-minded", Sufi thinkers were more inclined than their exoteric counterparts to view Islam from a wider perspective and deal meaningfully with religious difference. In part, this was because they understood theology in its original sense as the "study of the nature of God", and followed their inquiries wherever this definition took them. Some of the most perceptive Sufi writings on religious difference came from the school of Ibn 'Arabi.

Ibn 'Arabī and Modern Thought, Peter Coates

"...modern philosophy, sociology and psychology have been much influenced by the scientific and technological world-view of modernity, both in their theorizing and their preferred methodologies. There can be little doubt that the findings of (and debates within) these academic perspectives, both collectively and separately, raise serious questions about the whole concept of rationality and its epistemological credentials which have implications far beyond the disciplines themselves. These are questions which make it pertinent and timely to ask how these preferred epistemologies of modern thought look in the light of the metaphysics of Wahdat al-Wujud."

Fulfilling our Potential: Ibn 'Arabi's understanding of man in a contemporary context, Jane Clark

The heart is a supra-rational rather than an anti-rational faculty, and in his work, Ibn 'Arabi gives a comprehensive account of the way in which all the different faculties - dhawq, imagination, reason and sensory perception - operate and inter-relate. This is perhaps especially valuable to us in the present day, when secular rationalism has become so prevalent that it sometimes seems as if our capacity for mystical insight and creative imagination has been forgotten, or if remembered, not afforded validity. He gives us a map to a lost land, which is the complete human potential.

Universal Meanings in Ibn 'Arabī's Fusūs al-hikam: Some Comments on the Chapter of Moses, Jane Clark

Ibn 'Arabī's aim in writing was not to inform about cosmology, philosophy or even to elucidate the details of the religion; it was to bring each person to self-knowledge, in conformity with the prophetic hadīth which he himself often quotes: "He who knows himself knows his Lord". It is the ability of the Shaykh to directly address this potential for human perfection in each person, which makes him relevant to everyone, regardless of their race, gender, education, religious belief or historical era.

Mi'rāj al-kalima – From the Risāla Qushayriyya to the Futūhāt Makkiyya, Michel Chodkiewicz

In the section of the Rūh al-quds which Ibn 'Arabī dedicates to one of his earliest masters, Abū Ya'qūb Yūsuf b. Yakhlaf al-Qummī,[1] he mentions that the Risāla of al-Qushayrī was the first book of its kind that he ever encountered. In this important article, Michel Chodkiewicz relates one of the six fundamentals sections of the Futūhāt, containing 115 chapters, to that Risāla.

" The initial section of the Futūhāt is the fasl al-ma'ārif, and the purpose of this study of fundamental doctrinal knowledge is indicated by the very long chapter 73 which concludes it: we find therein an extremely detailed analysis of the nature, function, modes and degrees of sainthood. The teaching dispensed in the preceding chapters has the clear objective of preparing the disciple to embark upon the path which will lead him to walāya. Furthermore, he will have to put into practice the knowledge that he has received. It is this moving into the experiential stage that the fasl al-mu'āmalāt will be dedicated to, the latter word having here a very different sense from that which it normally has in works on fiqh... as soon as we consider the order of the contents, that is to say, the actual structure of the fasl: it very quickly becomes clear that this structure is rigorously based on the Risāla Qushayriyya.

The Vision of God, Michel Chodkiewicz

Concerning "You shall not see Me!" (lan tarânî) -- the divine reply to Moses' request (arini unzur ilayka) "Let me see, so that I can behold You" (Q. 7:143).

The Endless Voyage, Michel Chodkiewicz

This starts with the observation that Islam's religious vocabulary constantly reminds man that he is a traveller, a pilgrim. "... in each of the five daily prayers - a total of seventeen times per day - the Muslim asks God to lead him along the straight path (sirât mustaqîm): in the Fâtiha, the first sura of the Qur'an, the recitation of which is mandatory, it is as a matter of fact the only request that is made." It includes a presentation of Ibn 'Arabi's Kitâb al-isfâr.

The Banner of Praise, Michel Chodkiewicz

"God 'began the creation of man from clay... Then He fashioned him harmoniously and blew into him of His spirit.' (Q. 32: 7–9.) The first man then uttered his first words – those which established human language – by saying: al-hamdu li-llâh rabbi l-'âlamîn." In following Ibn 'Arabi's writings on the superlative station of praise, this essay includes passages from the Futûhât al-Makkiyya in which he replies to the questions posed long before by Hakîm Tirmidhî.

'We Will Show Them Our Signs...', Michel Chodkiewicz

This article draws on accounts of stigmata in Christian saints, such as St Frances of Assisi, the contemporary of Ibn 'Arabi, and considers how the interior state of people in the Islamic universe manifests itself outwardly.

The Anthropology of Compassion, William Chittick

Ibn ʿArabī has commonly been called al-Shaykh al-Akbar, 'the Greatest Teacher', not least because he explained in unprecedented detail and at the highest level of discourse all the implications of the Islamic worldview. The result was a vast synthesis of the basic fields of learning, including Quran, Hadith, language, law, psychology, cosmology, theology, philosophy, and metaphysics. In delving into these subjects, he wanted to show how each can act as an aid in the actualization of true human nature. But what exactly is true human nature? This is what I am calling 'anthropology' – the science of the anthropos – the explication of which lies at the heart of Ibn ʿArabī's writings.

The Wisdom of Animals, William Chittick

Ibn 'Arabi devotes Chapter 198 of al-Futūhāt al-makkiyya, one of the longer chapters of the book, to the Breath of the all-Merciful. He takes the Arabic alphabet as representing twenty-eight primordial divine letters. In order to create the cosmos, with all its invisible and visible levels, God composes words and sentences and books employing those twenty-eight letters. The passage on the twenty-fifth cosmic letter bears on Ibn 'Arabi's understanding of the role of animals in creation. It is an extraordinary exposition. Added November 2011

Death and the Afterlife, William Chittick (in Arabic)

This is a translation into Arabic by Mahmud Yunus of Chapter 7 of Imaginal Worlds (State University of New York Press, 1994). "Teachings about death and the afterlife pertain to the 'return' to God (ma'ād), the third principle of Islamic faith, after divine unity (tawhīd) and prophecy (nubuwwa)." In his writings Ibn 'Arabi dealt with both the "voluntary return" (al-rujū' al-ikhtiyārī) and the "compulsory return" (al-rujū' al-idtirārī), and the perspectives he raised had a great influence on subequent treatments by Sufis, philosophers and theologians. Based on extensive passages from the Futūhāt al-makkiyyah, this article is concerned with Ibn 'Arabi's teachings on the compulsory return.

The Divine Roots of Human Love, William Chittick

This article reflects the profundity and richness of Ibn 'Arabi's writings on the subject of Love (mahabba) in the Futûhât. To mention just one quotation from it, "The divine love derives from God's names Beautiful and Light. Light goes forward to the entities of the possible things and dispels from them the darkness of their gaze upon themselves and upon their own possibility. It occasions for them a seeing that is Light's own seeing, because light alone allows anything to be seen. Then God discloses Himself to the entity through the name Beautiful, and it falls in love with Him. (Fut. II 112.33)"

The Religion of Love Revisited, William Chittick

The couplet from Ibn 'Arabi's poetic work the Tarjumān al-ashwāq is very well known: 'I practice the religion of love, wherever its camels turn their faces. / This religion is my religion and my faith.' William Chittick sets it within a historical context generally and the teachings of Ibn al-ʿArabī. That is, he stands in a long line of teachers who spoke in similar terms, and that his "Religion of Love" is not quite what most people imagine it to be. It certainly implies openness to the beauty of God's creation along with love and compassion for all of God's creatures, but more than anything else it is a program of action...

Presence with God, William Chittick

"...if we follow Ibn al-'Arabi's own terminology, we cannot move toward the 'Presence of Being', because we are already there. What we are really striving for is presence with specific self-disclosures of God in ourselves, self-disclosures that derive from divine names such as Guide, Compassionate, Forgiving, and Pardoning. Thus, the goal of the Sufi path cannot be to achieve the 'Presence of Being'. It is rather to achieve permanent happiness through following the guidance brought by the prophets."

Timelessness and Time, Jane Carroll

Ibn 'Arabi, whose writings never leave the realm of the timeless, was nevertheless born into a religion which reveals itself according to a linear progression in time. Many of the great masterpieces of western art tell this story: Milton and Dante in verse, Chartres Cathedral in stone and glass, Michaelangelo has laid it out on the walls and the ceiling of the Sistine chapel where the whole event is depicted, from the first moment God divided light from darkness, through the old testament prophets to the life of Christ and the inevitable conclusion with the Last Judgement. Ibn 'Arabi himself has a specific role in time as the Seal of the Mohammedian saints. His appearance at a point in time relative to what came before and what comes after has significance. What is it the unfolding of this story tells us of who we are now and to what we are invited at this moment? Delivered in 2000 at the US and UK Symposia, and reprinted in various magazines and on other web sites.

On the Divine Love of Beauty, Pablo Beneito (pdf)

"We are going to deal... with a mystical conception of Beauty in its ethical and metaphysical forms, that is to say, with the human relationship with the divine attribute of Beauty; an aesthetics of the spirit, an art of contemplation.

The Presence of Superlative Compassion, Pablo Beneito

On the Divine Names al-Rahmân al-Rahîm and other terms with the lexical root r - h - m in the Work of Ibn 'Arabî. On the one hand, in Akbarian thought the term rahma retains the meaning which it has in ordinary language, where it is associated with pity (shafaqa), benevolence (ra'fa), etc. In this sense one could say that God has compassion on the essences (a'yân) which yearn to be manifested in actual existence. In another sense Ibn 'Arabî assimilates rahma to its effect, and given that the effect of the compassion of God for the essences is actual existence, rahma is existence (wujûd)... This paper is also online in Spanish, La Presencia De La Compasión Superlativa

The Time of Deeds and the Time of Spiritual Knowledge Pablo Beneito

This article concerns a remarkable reflection by Ibn 'Arabi on one kind of change in humanity during the Islamic era. He says the time that we live in is not the same as the past, since now is closer to the Abode of the Hereafter, and that the people of our times have access to unveiling more rapidly and enjoy a greater capacity for inner contemplation (shuhūd). By contrast, their deeds (or ritual works) are less numerous than the deeds of those who lived in times past (al-zamān al-mutaqaddim).

The Servant of the Loving One - On the Adoption of the Character Traits of al-Wadûd, Pablo Beneito

In this article there are translations of two passages by Ibn 'Arabi on the Divine Name al-Wadûd. The first is from the treatise entitled Kashf al-ma'nâ, and the second is from the second-to-last chapter of The Meccan Illuminations.

The Degrees of the Station of No-Station: Regarding the End of the Journey, Omar Benaïssa

As a notion, the station of no-station appears very frequently in the writings of the masters under different names (mawqifmā warā al-mawāqif, maqām al-maqāmāt, maqām al-tawhīd, maqām al-qurba, etc.). But as an expression, it appears very rarely. Ibn 'Arabī used it in the Futūhāt al-Makkiyya[2] in a technical sense, crediting Abū Yazīd al-Bastāmī and others with having attained it, as though he wanted to suggest the rarity and also the measure of it.

Image and Presence in the Thought of Ibn al-'Arabi, by Ralph Austin

"One might say that this theme of Theophany and Imagination (the title of the Society symposium in 1992, where this paper was presented) relates particularly well to the second verse of that quintessential chapter of the Qur'an, the 112th, which posits the two great poles of the divine Being, that of ahadiyyah or unicity and aloneness, and that of samadiyyah or creativity and manifestation. Thus, as al-Ahad, God rejects all other, all "us and Him", while as al-Samad He is the affirming source of all our becomings and destinies."

The Lady Nizam – an Image of Love and Knowledge by Ralph Austin

Ibn 'Arabi met in Mecca the young daughter of Abu Shaja' Zahir. He says in the introduction to the Tarjumān al-ashwāq, "This Shaikh had a virgin daughter, a slender child who captivated one who looked upon her, whose presence gave lustre to gatherings... her name was Nizam (Hamony) and her surname 'Ain al-shams (Eye of the Sun). She was religious, learned, ascetic, a sage among the sages of the Holy Places... I took her as a model for the inspiration of the poems... although I was unable to express so much as a part of the emotion which my soul experienced and which the company of this young girl awakened in my heart..."

Aspects of Mystical Prayer in Ibn 'Arabi's Thought by Ralph Austin

"The prayer rite is at one and the same time the most common and yet the most special of rites, everywhere known and public and yet the occasion of and opportunity for the profoundest communication with God. It is also unique in two other ways. Firstly, it is the only rite which God Himself may be said to perform, since He is said to sallâ ʿalâ ‘pray over’ the Prophet and us.[1] Secondly, alone of all the rites it incorporates the essential spirit of the other four. For example, it is the frequent occasion of the pronouncing of the creed; it is a time of reservation and abstention from unnecessary and superfluous talk and activity, like the Fast (Mary in the Quran); . . ."

The paradox of the duty of perfection in the doctrine of Ibn 'Arabi, by Claude Addas

If, in his primordial form, man possesses all the divine characteristics, the fact remains that in the animal man (al-insān al-hayawānī) they are buried under the mountain of the ego; it is therefore incumbent upon the sālik, he who makes his way towards God, to revive these akhlāq which are sleeping in the deepest part of his being. Ibn 'Arabi says: "The men of God are those who, though they have been created according to His Form, do not allow themselves to be diverted from poverty, humility and servitude. And when they are obliged – and it is unavoidable – to demonstrate the power inherent in their original form, they demonstrate it on the occasions that God has arranged for them. [. . .] Restore His Names to His Form, not to yours!"

The Muhammadian House – Ibn ʿArabī's concept of ahl al-bayt, Claude Addas

"Ahlu baytī amān li ummatī, 'The people of my house are a safeguard for my community’. Although it is not included in any of the canonical collections, this saying attributed to the Prophet is one of the innumerable traditions which in Islam are the basis of the respect which the faithful have towards the ahl al-bayt, the 'Family of the Prophet’, understood here in the broader sense and including the shurafāʾ, the direct descendants of the Prophet from his daughter Fātima... It goes without saying that the question of knowing exactly to whom the expression ahl al-bayt refers in this verse has given rise to endless debate." Claude Addas considers understandings of this hadith drawing on passages from the writings of Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi.

The experience and doctrine of love in Ibn Arabî, Claude Addas

Claude Addas is the author of Quest for the Red Sulphur and The Voyage of No Return. Delivered at the 2002 Society symposium in Oxford, The Service of Love. The same paper is available in French, Expérience et doctrine de l'amour chez Ibn Arabî.

Ibn 'Arabi: Spiritual Practice and Other Translations, by James Morris.

This is a collection of eight translations of shorter treatises by Ibn ‘Arabi (such as his "Book of Spiritual Advice") and partial translations of chapters from the Futûhât al-Makkiya, e.g. The Spiritual Ascension: Ibn 'Arabî and the Mi'râj [= Chapter 367 of the Futûhât]. The translations have been listed on the page "Ibn 'Arabi's writings"